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諾貝爾和平獎-Muhammad Yunus

Muhammad Yunus, the banks founder. 2006年10月13日星期五最新諾貝爾和平獎出爐了.  奧斯陸從191位推薦名單中把獎項頒給了孟加拉籍的經濟學教授Muhammad Yunus及他所創立的Grameen Bank(孟加拉意謂專為窮人服務的鄉村銀行). 大會和平獎宣稱: 想擁有長期性的世界和平,首要努力的就是要先讓絕大多數的窮困人口脫貧.  Une paix durable ne peut pas être obtenue sans qu'une partie importante de la population trouve les moyens de sortir de la pauvreté.Muhammad Yunus 擁有美國Vanderbilt University的經濟博士學位. 高學歷的光環並沒促使他走入金錢遊戲及為富人服務的金融體系; 反而以專業經濟知識,加上自己樸實又寬廣的憐怋心懷投入救貧行動.  1976年創立Grameen Bank並實驗「微型貸款microcredit」模式提供小小金額的創業基金,專為無產的鄉村婦女或肯努力的貧窮者服務,加注脫貧奮鬥的激力及互助創業的上進心,讓窮人也有翻身安居樂業的可能未來.....

下列是Grameen Bank輔導孟加拉窮困人口脫貧的主要方針:取自http://www.grameen-info.org/bank/the16.html

The 16 decisions of Grameen Bank

  1. We shall follow and advance the four principles of Grameen Bank --- Discipline, Unity, Courage and Hard work – in all walks of our lives.

  2. Prosperity we shall bring to our families.

  3. We shall not live in dilapidated houses. We shall repair our houses and work towards constructing new houses at the earliest.

  4. We shall grow vegetables all the year round. We shall eat plenty of them and sell the surplus.

  5. During the plantation seasons, we shall plant as many seedlings as possible.

  6. We shall plan to keep our families small. We shall minimize our expenditures. We shall look after our health.

  7. We shall educate our children and ensure that they can earn to pay for their education.

  8. We shall always keep our children and the environment clean.

  9. We shall build and use pit-latrines.

  10. We shall drink water from tubewells. If it is not available, we shall boil water or use alum.

  11. We shall not take any dowry at our sons' weddings, neither shall we give any dowry at our daughters wedding. We shall keep our centre free from the curse of dowry. We shall not practice child marriage.

  12. We shall not inflict any injustice on anyone, neither shall we allow anyone to do so.

  13. We shall collectively undertake bigger investments for higher incomes.

  14. We shall always be ready to help each other. If anyone is in difficulty, we shall all help him or her.

  15. If we come to know of any breach of discipline in any centre, we shall all go there and help restore discipline.

  16. We shall take part in all social activities collectively.

 

參考上列16項的文字與圖案,也許臺灣人會疵之以鼻的笑說: 我們的生活早已脫離那第三世界貧窮國度般的落後桎梏.....但不能否認的目前的臺灣社會貧富差距逐年擴大中,在某些社會陰暗角落及偏僻邊遠村莊,臺灣仍存在不少的弱勢群體及相當差的衛生環境、不合科學的傳統觀念,需要大眾的關懷協助與改善. Muhammad Yunus與Grameen Bank的精神還是值得大家借鏡學習.

延伸閱讀 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grameen_Bank


 

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